III.(B) David as an Image of the Messiah
Jeremiah 30:8-9,21 (JPT) prophesies:
8. And it shall be on that day, says the Lord of Hosts, [that] I will break his yoke off your neck, and I will break your thongs, and strangers shall no longer enslave them.
9. And they shall serve the Lord their God and David their king, whom I will set up for them.["raise up for them" -JPS]
21. And their prince shall be from them, and their ruler shall emerge from their midst, and I will bring him near, and he shall approach Me, for who is it who pledged his heart to approach Me? says the Lord.
Thus, Jeremiah 30 says God will free them and raise up David as a future ruler. But it explains that he will come from the midst of the people, and Jeremiah 23 says that the ruler who saves the people would be David's descendant. Therefore, the Messiah will be David's son and David at the same time. This makes sense in that he shall be a "seed that shall proceed from [David's] body." (2 Samuel 7:12)
But the Messiah is not only David in a biological sense, or else the Scriptures would only refer to him as "David's son." Instead, Hosea 3:5(JPT) prophesies: "Afterwards shall the children of Israel return, and seek the Lord their God and David their king, and they shall come trembling to the Lord and to His goodness at the end of days."
Ezekial 34:23-24(JPT) says: "I shall put up over them one shepherd and he will shepherd them, namely My servant David; he will shepherd them, and he will be for them as a shepherd. And I, the Lord, shall be to them for a God, and My servant David a prince in their midst."
Ezekial 37:24-25(JPT) says: "My servant David shall be king over them, and one shepherd shall be for them all, and they shall walk in My ordinances and observe My statutes and perform them. And they shall dwell on the land that I have given to My servant, to Jacob, wherein your forefathers lived; and they shall dwell upon it, they and their children and their children's children, forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever."
Isaiah 55:3-4 (JPT) says: "Incline your ear and come to Me, hearken and your soul shall live, and I will make for you an everlasting covenant, the dependable mercies of David. Behold, a witness to nations have I appointed him, a ruler and a commander of nations."
Even the Messiah's title, "the Anointed one", is connected with David. 2 Samuel 19:22, 23:1, and Psalm 132:17 call David God's "anointed." 2 Samuel 22:51(JPT), which matches Psalm 18:51, says: "He gives great salvation to His king, and He performs kindness to His anointed; to David and to his seed, forevermore." Psalm 132:11,13,17 (JPT) says. "The Lord has sworn to David in truth, from which He will never turn back, 'Of the fruit of your body I shall seat upon your throne'... For the Lord has chosen Zion... There I shall cause David's horn to sprout; I have set up a lamp for My anointed". Thus, the Scriptures use David as a poetic figure for the Messiah son of David, who shares with David related titles, biology, personal characteristics, experiences, actions.